Software testing entails various methodologies deployed to test the developed software to ensure that the finished product meets the requirements in various aspects such as the functionality. The software should be working as it is intended to be. It should look and appear the way envisaged. It should have a consistent user interface. It should be error free where-in the requisite inputs provides desired results. It should be reliably available, accessible and secure to the end user. To ensure that these objectives are met, a set of software testing techniques are used for this purpose. These could be broadly categorized as Functional, Non-functional, Automation Testing, Agile Testing, and their various variants.
The software testing is a very dynamic of the software quality engineering. It proposes a set of methodologies, but the actual implementations are exclusive to the project requirements. So, the choice of the software testing techniques is usually dictated by the project requirements. The traditional waterfall model of the software engineering realized a set of testing practices which has their own slice in the software development lifecycle with the dedicated time for the testing. All the traditional methodologies held just fine since the testing phase attracted its own time and efforts. However, there has been a huge shift in the software development methodologies, the increasing use of the Agile and DevOps have changed the requirements from this discipline. The testing is increasingly turning out to be a just in time requirement in certain scenarios. The test cases are becoming highly fluid and dynamic and the turn-around times are really getting shorter. With Agile methodologies the software is developed and released in iterations with a few week sprints. The testing is also required to be responsive to the development needs. It is catering to very short cycles and specific requirements of the developments process. There is an emphasis of using the automated testing where most of the repeatable steps are automated. The Machine Leaning is making enormous changes in the workflows and processes, it is assisting in the software testing in finding unique test cases, predicting key parameters based on historical data, identification of the automated test cases, and defect management. The software testing in DevOps methodologies starts at the beginning of the software development cycle and assists with continuous testing and continuous monitoring. There is one on one alignment of test design, automation and test cases with the devOps. The emerging IOT trends have specific asks for the software testing such as IOT device usability, compatibility, validate user authentication, performance of the connected devices and simulation of the sensors.
The QA professionals needs to be at their toes to harvest the latest from the information technologies. They have be agile and nimble feet to adopt the new testing paradigms in response to the fast phased software development cycles. Here are a few software testing trends which will be in-vogue in 2019-2010.
- Acceptance Testing: Performed by the end user’s it is a part of formal testing done to evaluate the software against the set criteria before the customer can accept the software.
2. Agile Testing: Software is developed and delivered in quick iterations; testing is carried out after each iteration before the software delivery. The developed features are available for end user.
3. Alpha Testing: A subset of acceptance testing, this type of testing is used to identify bugs in the software before its release to the end users.
4. API Testing: The testing carried out at the message layer, it tests the Application Programming Interfaces used in the code for functionality, security and performance.
5. Automated Testing: Automated testing tools used to set up test environment, set test cases and compare expected and actual results. It is specifically useful for the steps which are repeated during the development lifecycle.
6. Basis Path Testing: It is used by testing teams when defining test cases. It defines execution paths by discerning logical complexity from procedural design.
7. Beta Testing: The actual use of software by the end users just prior to its commercial release. The product is released as a beta version with caveats.
8. Big Bang Integration Testing: All modules are tested together as one system rather. It is difficult to isolate errors in this type of testing. Either all modules work-well or they fail.
9. Binary Portability Testing: The platform portability of the code is checked using this type of testing. It is tested how the code behaves across various operating environments and to check its conformance with the Application Binary interfaces.
10. Bottom Up Integration Testing: The low-level of components are tested first, the testing only progresses to the high-level modules after all the low-level ones are successfully tested.
11. Branch Testing: A testing method where all the possible branches forking out from the individual decision points are reached out and validated.
12. Black box Testing: This method involves testing the functionality of the software without being privy to the internal structure or architecture. An all-pervasive test which could be applied to any level of the software testing. It could be both functional and non-functional testing.
13. Compatibility Testing: Testing to verify if the software could run on various operating systems, hardware, mobile devices or networks.
14. Component Testing: Also known as module testing, the testing is performed on individual components before their integration to the main module.
15. Configuration Testing: This type of testing ascertains the best-bit hardware and environment where the software being developed work optimally.
16. Compliance Testing: A non-functional testing technique which is used to ascertain if the software is compliant or confirms to given set of standards, contracts or regulations.
17. Concurrency Testing: Testing the software with the load of concurrent users. It is the monitoring of the software to observe any performance lags, crashes or stalls while multiple users are using the software to perform certain functions at the same time.
18. Context Driven Testing: The testing done for the scenarios which are unique to the project rather than following the one-size-fits-all approach. Each project is unique in its own with its own set of complexities. Approaching the testing with the textbook style regulations may not provide requisite outputs. The testing needs to be genuine to the need of the project.
19. Dependency Testing: This testing method examines requirements of the application with respect to the existing software with its functionality and structure such that the new application is developed holistically without undermining or breaking the functionality of the existing software. The application should be built across or on-top not against the structure of the existing software.
20. Domain Testing: Usually performed by the development and the software automation teams, the system is tested with the finite set of inputs to isolate that only allowed and valid inputs could be accepted by the system.
21. Penetration Testing: Usually conducted by external entities specializing in the security, the tests are performed to check the integrity of the computer systems or network against external attacks. This is a type of security testing entailing simulation of malicious attacks.
22. System Testing: Pre-deployment testing to validate if the existing set of hardware and software confirms to the stated requirements. This type of testing is performed for both the production and the development environments.
23. Stress Testing: Also known as endurance testing, it is undertaken to check how the software behaves under the duress. The system is tested beyond the normal loads even leaning towards the extremes. It also tends to discover the systems breaking point.
24. System integration Testing: Individual units are combined and tested as a module. The purpose of this type of testing is to validate the interactions and determine any issues among the module interactions.
25. User Interface Testing: This is a type of testing carried out to check if the Graphical User Interface meets the requirements. It essentially checks how the application appears to the end user and ensures that all its controls such as the buttons, menu bar, shortcuts and icons appear and work as intended.
26. Unit Testing: It entails the testing of individual modules to ensure the meeting of behavioural specifications, conformance with the design and the quality standards. The simulators are used to mimic the real-life behaviour of the other components.
27. Upgrade Testing: Typically done by the software testing and configuration management teams, it provides for testing the procedures that are required by end-users to install/uninstall or upgrade the software.
28. Workflow Testing: Workflow is the series of steps followed to reach the intended outcome. In workflow testing, is it ascertained if the workflow exactly maps to the business processes?
29. White box Testing: White-box testing is a method of software testing that tests internal structures and coding of an application, as opposed to its functionality. The intent is to validate the inputs and outputs of the application and improve design. In white box testing knowledge of the internal system routines, code and structure is required in addition to the programming skills are required to design the cases.